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Decree by Shah Ismail in Azeri Turkish discovered

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    Posted: 28 Sep 2012 at 01:20


Əbülmüzəffər sözümüz


Əmiri-əzəm əkrəm Musa Dorğut oğlu inayət və şəfqətimiz ümidvar olandan sonra şöylə bilsün kim, iftixarül-əazim vəl-əyan Əhməd ağa Qaramanlu ol tərəfə göndərdük və ol yerin ixtiyarligini kəndunə şəfəqqət etdük. Gərək kim, müşarileyh sözümdən və məsləhətimdən çıxmasun və mütabiət və yardım ona qılsun kim, inşaallah-təala hər nə kim, etmək muradi və istəgi olsa, hasildür. Gündən-günə hər iş vaqe bolsa. Əhməd ağa ittifaqi ilə dərgahi-müəllamizə bildirsünlər kim, hər növ buyruğumuz olsa, əməl etsün, könlümüzə xoş dutub mərhəmətimizə əmrdar olsun.

Təhrirən 7 rəbiüləvvəl, sənə 917
Xətm


Edited by Qaradağlı - 28 Sep 2012 at 01:22
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Qaradağlı Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28 Sep 2012 at 01:39
Its about appointment of a Qizilbash chief named Ahmed Agha Qaramanlu as a governor (Beylerbey) to a Safavid province.

"Abulmuzaffar" is the title of Shah Ismail.

Edited by Qaradağlı - 28 Sep 2012 at 03:45
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Qaradağlı Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29 Sep 2012 at 05:57
By Willem Floor & Hasan Javadi

"During the Safavid period Azerbaijani Turkish, or, as it also referred to at that time Qizilbash Turkish, occupied an important place in society, and it was both spoken at court and by the common people. Although Turkish was widely spoken in Safavid Iran this fact is rarely mentioned. Usually neither Persian nor European authors mention in which language people communicated with each other. The Turkish spoken in Safavid Iran was mostly what nowadays is referred to as Azeri or Azerbaijani Turkish. However, at that time it was referred to by various other names. It would seem that the poet and miniaturist Sadeqi Afshar (1533-1610), whose mother tongue was not Azerbaijani Turkish, but Chaghatay (although he was born in Tabriz), was the first to refer to speakers of Qizilbashi (motakallemin-e Qizilbash), but he, and one century later `Abdol-Jamil Nasiri were the exception to this general rule of calling the language “Turki.” The Portuguese called it Turquesco. Other Europeans and most Iranians called it Turkish or Turki. For the sake of simplicity and to avoid confusion we call the Turkic language used in Safavid Iran, Azerbaijani Turkish.

Throughout the Safavid period there were two constants as to Azerbaijani Turkish as a spoken language in Iran. First, it was and remained the official language of the royal court during the entire Safavid period. Second, the language remained the spoken language of the Turkic Qizilbash tribes and also was spoken in the army. Browne observed that the Safavid army’s war cry «was not ‹Long live Persia!› or the like, but, in the Turkish language, ‹O my spiritual guide and master whose sacrifice I am!’» Until 1590, the Qizilbash tribes had a hold on certain provinces (e.g. Shiraz: Dhu’l Qadr; Yazd; Afshar; Herat: Shamlu). This had consequences for how Azeri Turkish was diffused. During the 16th century this meant that Azeri was also spoken by various groups outside NW Iran, but after the break-up of the Qizilbash links with certain provinces Azerbaijani Turkish mostly withdrew to NW Iran in the 17th century, certain Turkic pockets remained in the rest of Iran.

As noted above, the fact that the court language was Azerbaijani Turkish of course promoted the use of that language in the capital cities (respectively, Tabriz, Qazvin, and Isfahan). In fact, at court more Turkish was spoken than Persian. In 1607, the Carmelites reported that “the Turkish language is usually spoken and understood and the Shah [`Abbas I] and chief men and soldiers generally speak in it. The common people speak Persian, and all documents and communications are in that language.” The court ceremonial was also in Azerbaijani Turkish. The Italian traveler Pietro della Valle wrote: «that the Qizilbash grandees told him that: ‹Persian is a very soft and sweet language, and really used by women for poetry, but Turkish is manly and fit for warriors; therefore, the shah and the emirs of the state speak Turkish.’»

Under Shah `Abbas II, the Carmelites reported that “Turki [not Osmanli Turkish] was the language of the court and widely used in Isfahan and in the north.” Chardin explicitly states about the Qizilbash, “these people, as well as their language, are so widespread in the northern part of the country, and later at court, and therefore, mistakenly all Iranians are called Qizilbash.” In 1660, Raphael du Mans wrote: “the every day language of Iran is Persian for the common people, [Azerbaijani] Turkish for the court.” According to Kaempfer, who was in Iran in the 1670s, “[Azerbaijani] Turkish is the common language at the Iranian court as well as the mother tongue of the Safavids in distinction of the language of the general populace. The use of [Azerbaijani] Turkish spread from the court to the magnates and notables and finally to all those who hope to benefit from the shah, so that nowadays it is almost considered shameful for a respectable man not to know [Azerbaijani] Turkish.” The French missionary Sanson, who lived in Iran between 1684-1695, states that Iranians regularly invoked the spiritual power of the king by using expression such as «qorban olim, din imanum padshah, bachunha dunim.» Azerbaijani Turkish remained the court language till the very end of the dynasty and Shah Soltan Hoseyn was even nicknamed yakhshi dir (‹It is good’),
because that is what he said to any official who submitted a proposal to him, as he was not interested in matters of state.


Arthur Edwards, a merchant of the Muscovy Company reported in 1567 that four copies of the trading privileges granted by Shah Tahmasp I were made «by his Secretarie,» … «whereof two as I required, are in the Turkish tongue.» During the reign of Shah `Abbas I it is noted in Russian sources that “The great envoys (of Russia) desired in their talks to the courtiers [of the Persian Shah], Ikhtam-Davlet [E`temad al-Dowleh] and his colleagues that the reply of the Shah should be in the Turkish language but in Tatar script.” This was the logical consequence of the fact that in the 16th-18th century the Russian tsars employed a considerable number of secretaries to translate incoming and outgoing letters to and from rulers in Europe, Asia Minor and the Middle East. In 1789, the Russian court employed 22 of such translators, eight of whom knew the Tatar (Turkic) language, and some of them knew «the Turkish language,» which presumably was Ottoman Turkish. The Russian envoys and ambassadors that were sent to Iran all carried official letters written in Russian with a translation in «the old Tatar language.» In reply, the Safavid court wrote its official letters in Persian or «in the old Azerbaijan language.» In the 16th and 17th centuries the Russian court received more than 55 letters from the «Qizilbash kings» written in the «Persian and Azerbaijani Turkish languages.» In 1588, the Russian court for the first time wrote a letter in the Tatar language to the Safavid court.

In short, Turkic languages and dialects played a much more important role in Safavid Iran than what has been the accepted wisdom so far, while Azerbaijani Turkish in particular was widely spoken and written in Safavid Iran. It was not only the language of the court and the army, but it was also used in poetry, even by renowned poets who usually wrote in Persian. The Safavid shahs, many of whom wrote poetry in Turkish themselves, promoted its literary use. Also, Turkish was used in the court’s official correspondence, both for internal and external affairs.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Qaradağlı Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07 Mar 2013 at 05:12
Shah Ismail was also a poet in Azerbaijani Turkish, he wrote under the pen-name of Khatai, for that very reason hes known as "Shah Ismail Khatai" or simple "Khatai" among Azerbaijani Turks.



Qış getdi, yenə bahar gəldi,
Gül bitdi vü laləzar gəldi.

Quşlar hamısı fəğanə düşdü,
Eşq odu yenə bu canə düşdü.




Dilbərin getdi, Xətayi, sən nedirsən dünyəni?
Çünki can getdi, bu tən, yarəb, niya qaldı mana.


Your beloved left, Khatai, what do you need this world for?
Because my spirit left, holy God, why did you leave this skin to me.





Edited by Qaradağlı - 07 Mar 2013 at 06:41
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Qaradağlı Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07 Mar 2013 at 05:15
Khata'i-də natiq oldı, Türkistanın piri oldı

"(Godhead) came to speech in the person of Khata'i, (who) became the pir of the Turks (of Azerbaijan)"




Edited by Qaradağlı - 07 Mar 2013 at 06:47
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Qaradağlı Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07 Mar 2013 at 06:58
During the Safavid period, as much as 1200 Azerbaijani Turkish words entered Persian.

Gerhard Doerfer: "Many Azeri words (about 1,200) entered Persian, since Iran was governed mostly by Azeri-speaking rulers and soldiers since the 16th century (Doerfer, 1963-75); these loanwords refer mainly to administration, titles, and conduct of war."

Some examples:

Qoşun: Military troop/force
Tuğ: Battle standard
Dustaq: Captive
Qayıq: Boat


Edited by Qaradağlı - 07 Mar 2013 at 07:10
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First page of Khatai's divan.



Bu sürahi dilbəri-rəna kimidir qaməti,
Ruh tək hər kim ki, rahin içər, artar rahəti.

Vəsfinin şərhin deməkdə nitqi yoxdur kimsənin,
Həq humayun eyləmiş bəzm içrə sahib dövləti.

Ləlü cövhərdən mürəssə qılmış ani həq təmam,
Bu səadətdən müdami kimsənin yox minnəti.

Gecələr məclis içində oturub ol sərfəraz,
Eylə mehmandır anın hər yerdə vardır izzəti.

Ey Xətayi, deməgil anın şərabın sən həram,
Sinəsinə nurtək dolmuş ilahin rəhməti.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Harburs Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Apr 2013 at 05:03
Originally posted by Qaradağlı Qaradağlı wrote:

During the Safavid period, as much as 1200 Azerbaijani Turkish words entered Persian.

Gerhard Doerfer: "Many Azeri words (about 1,200) entered Persian, since Iran was governed mostly by Azeri-speaking rulers and soldiers since the 16th century (Doerfer, 1963-75); these loanwords refer mainly to administration, titles, and conduct of war."
It is natural for neighboring people to exchange and borrow words from each other languages. There are many Persian words in Azeri, Istanbuli Turkish, Uzbek and so on. Iran has been ruled by Turkic dynasties such as Safavids, Afsharid and qajar and Persian dynasties of Zand and Pahlavi since 16th centuries so I can not see "mostly" as a proper word here and the majority of people were Persian and other Iranian languages speakers. The ruling community were in minority and under the influence of majority not the other way around.

Originally posted by Qaradağlı Qaradağlı wrote:

 

Some examples:

Qoşun: Military troop/force
Tuğ: Battle standard
Dustaq: Captive
Qayıq: Boat
Out of these four words only Qayegh is still in use. Qushun had been totally out of conversation language for about at least 50 to 60 years. My grand father mentioned this term a couple of times when I was a kid. Tugh and Dustag has no meaning in Persian.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Harburs Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Apr 2013 at 05:06
Originally posted by Qaradağlı Qaradağlı wrote:

First page of Khatai's divan.



Bu sürahi dilbəri-rəna kimidir qaməti,
Ruh tək hər kim ki, rahin içər, artar rahəti.

Vəsfinin şərhin deməkdə nitqi yoxdur kimsənin,
Həq humayun eyləmiş bəzm içrə sahib dövləti.

Ləlü cövhərdən mürəssə qılmış ani həq təmam,
Bu səadətdən müdami kimsənin yox minnəti.

Gecələr məclis içində oturub ol sərfəraz,
Eylə mehmandır anın hər yerdə vardır izzəti.

Ey Xətayi, deməgil anın şərabın sən həram,
Sinəsinə nurtək dolmuş ilahin rəhməti.
Can you translate them in English?
"Turn yourself not away from three best things: Good Thought, Good Word, and Good Deed" Zoroaster.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Qaradağlı Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Apr 2013 at 14:17
Originally posted by Harburs Harburs wrote:

It is natural for neighboring people to exchange and borrow words from each other languages. There are many Persian words in Azeri, Istanbuli Turkish, Uzbek and so on.


Of course, I'm aware of that.

Originally posted by Harburs Harburs wrote:

Out of these four words only Qayegh is still in use. Qushun had been totally out of conversation language for about at least 50 to 60 years. My grand father mentioned this term a couple of times when I was a kid. Tugh and Dustag has no meaning in Persian.


I believe "Tugh" still exists, its used for Muharram ceremonial flags, correct me if wrong.

There are many other examples of course that are actually used in daily speech, such as Otaq, Ocaq, Soraq and so on.



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Harburs Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Apr 2013 at 15:05
Originally posted by Qaradağlı Qaradağlı wrote:

Originally posted by Harburs Harburs wrote:

It is natural for neighboring people to exchange and borrow words from each other languages. There are many Persian words in Azeri, Istanbuli Turkish, Uzbek and so on.


Of course, I'm aware of that.

Originally posted by Harburs Harburs wrote:

Out of these four words only Qayegh is still in use. Qushun had been totally out of conversation language for about at least 50 to 60 years. My grand father mentioned this term a couple of times when I was a kid. Tugh and Dustag has no meaning in Persian.


I believe "Tugh" still exists, its used for Muharram ceremonial flags, correct me if wrong.

There are many other examples of course that are actually used in daily speech, such as Otaq, Ocaq, Soraq and so on.
I have never heard of Tugh. It might be in use in Iranian Azerbaijani language. Otaqh looks like Persian or Arabic in origin we have Tagh (Arch) and Tabagheh (floor, story) that are most likely other derivatives of Tabagha root. Ojagh I have no Idea (can be turkish). Soraqh again I have never thought about it. There are terms such as Ghablameh (pot, dish) and Ghashogh (spoon) Ghalpagh (rim cover) which look more Turkish to me. We have even some mongol words such as Yuresh (attack, raid) in modern Persian. 50 years ago we had these mixed Turkic/Iranic/Arabic military terms of Tufangchi (musketeer), Tupchi(cannon man), and words like Hakim bashi (doctor) Tabakhbashi, baghban bashi and so on (all of these terms have been replaced with their Persian equivalents since industrialization of Iran 90 years ago. Hakim (Arabic for scholar or doctor) and bashi (turkic for boss, president) which means best doctor who was responsible for other doctors action (usually employed by ruler of a town or king himself). Persian street talking has some Turkic terms or cursing word. Na mana! and alike terms are being used widely with younger generation. I still can recall many terms in Azeri such as san danishma! and curses like kupak, eshak, ... and so on. (souvenirs of my teenage Azeri friends back in high school Smile)


Edited by Harburs - 20 Apr 2013 at 15:17
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Paradigm of Humanity Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Apr 2013 at 16:26
This is "tuğ":
the single postmodern virtue of obsessive egalitarianism
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Qaradağlı Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Apr 2013 at 17:36
Originally posted by Harburs Harburs wrote:

Originally posted by Qaradağlı Qaradağlı wrote:

Originally posted by Harburs Harburs wrote:

It is natural for neighboring people to exchange and borrow words from each other languages. There are many Persian words in Azeri, Istanbuli Turkish, Uzbek and so on.


Of course, I'm aware of that.

Originally posted by Harburs Harburs wrote:

Out of these four words only Qayegh is still in use. Qushun had been totally out of conversation language for about at least 50 to 60 years. My grand father mentioned this term a couple of times when I was a kid. Tugh and Dustag has no meaning in Persian.


I believe "Tugh" still exists, its used for Muharram ceremonial flags, correct me if wrong.

There are many other examples of course that are actually used in daily speech, such as Otaq, Ocaq, Soraq and so on.
I have never heard of Tugh. It might be in use in Iranian Azerbaijani language. Otaqh looks like Persian or Arabic in origin we have Tagh (Arch) and Tabagheh (floor, story) that are most likely other derivatives of Tabagha root. Ojagh I have no Idea (can be turkish). Soraqh again I have never thought about it. There are terms such as Ghablameh (pot, dish) and Ghashogh (spoon) Ghalpagh (rim cover) which look more Turkish to me. We have even some mongol words such as Yuresh (attack, raid) in modern Persian. 50 years ago we had these mixed Turkic/Iranic/Arabic military terms of Tufangchi (musketeer), Tupchi(cannon man), and words like Hakim bashi (doctor) Tabakhbashi, baghban bashi and so on (all of these terms have been replaced with their Persian equivalents since industrialization of Iran 90 years ago. Hakim (Arabic for scholar or doctor) and bashi (turkic for boss, president) which means best doctor who was responsible for other doctors action (usually employed by ruler of a town or king himself). Persian street talking has some Turkic terms or cursing word. Na mana! and alike terms are being used widely with younger generation. I still can recall many terms in Azeri such as san danishma! and curses like kupak, eshak, ... and so on. (souvenirs of my teenage Azeri friends back in high school Smile)


Otaq is of Turkic origin, as is Ocaq (oven) and Soraq (news). Otaq originally meant "tent", as you know, its modern meaning is "room". In Turkmen likewise its "Otağ", while "Oda" in Anatolian Turkish.






Edited by Qaradağlı - 20 Apr 2013 at 18:51
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Harburs Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Apr 2013 at 19:37
Originally posted by Paradigm of Humanity Paradigm of Humanity wrote:

This is "tuğ":
We don't have such a thing. It reminds me of Mongol banners in Age of Emipre 2 game.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Qaradağlı Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Apr 2013 at 19:44
Dear, you can see the "Tüq" in figure 23.



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Harburs Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Apr 2013 at 19:50
Originally posted by Qaradağlı Qaradağlı wrote:

 
Otaq is of Turkic origin, as is Ocaq (oven) and Soraq (news). Otaq originally meant "tent", as you know, its modern meaning is "room". In Turkmen likewise its "Otağ", while "Oda" in Anatolian Turkish.
Still it can be a loan word from Arabic=>Persian=>Turkmen=>Turkish. Can you explain root of otagh in Turkic and give a derivation word? For example in English root of significant is signify(signifying) and you may create this deriviation with same root, signifying, signification or significance. If you can give me such examples in Turkic with their meanings then I will accept.

Ojagh may be Turkish. It has the same meaning in Persian and its Persian equivalent is Tanour or in modern Persian we usually use Gaaz (or fer).

Soragh as you mentioned we only use when we combine it with a vowel i. 
Soraghi as ma nemigiri (don't you ask our well being). here it means news.

But we use another form that has a total different meaning so you might mix it up.
Soragh e oun naro. (Don't go to his side) here it means side or being close to some one (location wise.)





Edited by Harburs - 20 Apr 2013 at 20:21
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Qaradağlı Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Apr 2013 at 19:56
Originally posted by Harburs Harburs wrote:

Originally posted by Qaradağlı Qaradağlı wrote:

 
Otaq is of Turkic origin, as is Ocaq (oven) and Soraq (news). Otaq originally meant "tent", as you know, its modern meaning is "room". In Turkmen likewise its "Otağ", while "Oda" in Anatolian Turkish.
Still it can be a loan word from Arabic=>Persian=>Turkmen=>Turkish can you explain root of otagh in Turkic and give a derivation word. For example in English root of significant is signify and you may create this deriviation with same root, signifying, signification or significance. If you can give me such examples in Turkic with their meanings then I will accept.

Ojagh may be turkish. It has the same meaning in Persian and it has its Persian equivalent of Tanour or in modern persian sometimes we use Gaaz (Ojagh gaaz).

Soragh as you mention we only use when we combine it with a vowel i. 
Soraghi as ma nemigiri (don't you ask our well being). here it means news

But we use another form that has a total different meaning so you might mix it up.
Soregh e oun naro. (Don't go to his side) here it means side being close to some one.


I already explained it. Otaq like said originally meant "tent", and its modern meaning as "room" matches it.

"Soraq" and "Soregh" does not sound like the same words to me.

And I'm pretty sure about the Turkic origin of these words.




Edited by Qaradağlı - 21 Apr 2013 at 01:38
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Harburs Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Apr 2013 at 20:01
Originally posted by Qaradağlı Qaradağlı wrote:

Dear, you can see the "Tüq" in figure 23.



 Alam is the word for the whole mass that a strong guy usually carries on his shoulders in day of Ashoura. We don't use a word Tugh. People may use some equivalent Persian word such as Kakol or sari for that banner thing and the shape of it is also different. I have never heard tugh all my life. Have you ever heard a Persian speaking person say tugh when he/she is pointing at this banner figures? I haven't and I speak Persian fluently I can see the description but it is in English and the book is from 1938. This word is not in use anymore , even if it might have been rarely used in Qajar dynasty as the description says.

Edited by Harburs - 20 Apr 2013 at 20:17
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Lao Tse Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Apr 2013 at 20:54
Originally posted by Harburs Harburs wrote:

Originally posted by Paradigm of Humanity Paradigm of Humanity wrote:

This is "tuğ":
We don't have such a thing. It reminds me of Mongol banners in Age of Emipre 2 game.
 
Actually that does look a little Mongol. It kinda looks like what was used by one of the tribes near the Ughyur Border.
在財富的害處,而是一件好事永遠不持續。我在和平中仅居住在新的風下。 Wei Jia Hong No harm in wealth, but a good thing doesn't last forever. I live only among peace under
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Paradigm of Humanity Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21 Apr 2013 at 05:36
It's hard to find an picture or miniature about Ottomans that doesn't have a tuğ in it. It's still used by janissarry bands.




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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Lao Tse Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21 Apr 2013 at 08:50
Good point, and the Mongol version is more colorful, and has more than the crecent on top
在財富的害處,而是一件好事永遠不持續。我在和平中仅居住在新的風下。 Wei Jia Hong No harm in wealth, but a good thing doesn't last forever. I live only among peace under
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