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Different Calendar in history

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    Posted: 29 Sep 2012 at 13:10

Calendar: Calendar is a system of measuring and recording the passage of time. A major scientific advance occurred when people realized that nature furnishes a regular sequence of seasons. (Well, i got this definition from dictionary)

Gregorian calendar

Most people in the Western world use the Gregorian calendar, worked out in the 1580's by Pope Gregory XIII. It has 12 months, 11 with 30 or 31 days. The other month, February, normally has 28 days. Every fourth year, called a leap year, it has 29 days. However, century years that cannot be divided evenly by 400 lose the extra day, though they are leap years. For example, February had 28 days in 1900 but 29 days in 2000.

The Gregorian calendar is based on the year of Jesus Christ's birth, according to a dating system started in 532 by the monk Dionysius Exiguus. In this system, the year of Christ's birth was A.D. 1., and the year before that was 1 B.C.

Islamic calendar

The Islamic calendar begins with Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina. This flight, called the Hijrah, also spelled Hijra or Hegira, took place in A.D. 622 by the Gregorian calendar.

The Islamic year is based on the moon, and has 12 months, alternately 30 and 29 days long. These months are Muharram, Safar, Rabi I, Rabi II, Jumada I, Jumada II, Rajab, Shaban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Zulkadah, and Dhūl-Hijja.

The Islamic year is much shorter than the solar year, with only 354 days. As a result, the Islamic New Year moves backward through the seasons.

Chinese Lunar Calendar

The Chinese calendar begins at 2637 B.C., the year in which the legendary Emperor Huangdi is said to have invented it. This calendar counts years in cycles of 60. For example, the year 2000 in the Gregorian calendar is the 17th year in the 78th cycle. The years within each cycle are broken down into repeating 12-year cycles. In these cycles, each year is named after 10 Chinese constellations and 12 animals. The animals are the rat, ox, tiger, hare, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, rooster, dog, and pig. The year 2000 is the year of the dragon.

Maya Calendar

The Maya of Central America used a combination of calendars. The Tzolk’in was a 260-day almanac of sacred events. Each day was named for 1 of 20 gods and given a number between 1 and 13. The combination of number and name predicted good or bad luck on that day.
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