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Economics and Civilizations

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sadashivan View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote sadashivan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Economics and Civilizations
    Posted: 26 Nov 2013 at 23:49
Some 200,000 years back “Homo Sapiens” evolved in Africa. Apart from learning technique for making stone tools they developed abstract art engraving on ostrich shells, bone & shell jewellery and sharp bone tools. Human instinct to live together formed societies, which helped moving forward in many groups; about 60,000 years back they spread out into the rest of the world. Essence of economics existed even during that period, which behaved them to migrate from Africa as first human species. Migration “out of Africa” improved locating new resources and survival tools. While, in many parts they had to compete with their ancestors “Neanderthals” or "Homo Erectus" who migrated from Africa earlier. The theory of Neanderthals/Homo Erectus and Homo sapiens interbreeding or wiped out by Homo sapiens or became extinct are still a disputed arguments among explorers. Ancient ancestors migrated from Africa had an economic goal “survival”.

1.     Migration is always an economic activity whether ancient ancestors or present modern human. The economics is a process of managing continued existence, resources and consumption.

2.     Human’s or any specie’s basic instinct is to store the remaining after consumption, for the future needs is “saving”. “Exchange” is interchanging surplus or unneeded for currently required. These two factors “Save” and “Exchange” significant as “save” signifies “Banking” and “Exchange” signifies “trade” in modern economic world. Save and exchange are integral parts of the definition of economics.

3.     In any civilization whether Stone Age or Iron Age or our modern times, activities carried out that creates environment to survive or secures survival is the economic activity.

Evolution of managing economics expanded farther during first historic civilization some 8000 years ago through farmers in Mesopotamia. Farmers benefited from Tigris and Euphrates rivers and its fertile lands. In Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer, Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires all natives to the territory of modern-day Iraq (Wikipedia). They began to grow grains and domesticated animals which provided an alternative food and compost for agricultural land. As the population grew feeding became a challenging task. They invented a methodical form of irrigation system using canals and dams that converted barren to fertile land. This developed irrigation system transformed agricultural outlook and grew trade relationships.

Rising agricultural economy allowed trade to grow and develop markets, which later transformed to cities. Economic movement and growth eased expansion of urban cities. The first big city was Uruk (4400-3100 BC) later became Babylonia. Advancement of agriculture and over production initiated finding ways to dispose opened international trade routes to Egypt, Indus Valley and other parts. Imports and Exports were mainly done on equal value of merchandise, later exchanged with silver and precious metals. Economic activities evolved and trade became the major avenue to relationship with foreign countries helped extending exchange of discoveries, culture, and religion.

The people of Mesopotamia invented earliest form of writing called cuneiform, was an added value to record production and marketing. Both barter and money systems prevailed in trading activity. Banking system was introduced that made methods of transactions easier in the form of clay tablets engraved notes and ring moneys. Similar to present banking systems, Mesopotamian banks too received deposits, lend on interest. This civilization’s economic system was more or less similar to present private participation but in the control of dynasties. Dynasties controlled land, people, military and economy under Hammurabi code (1795-1750 BC). A tax system was introduced by dynasties, which was binding to all traders and citizens. Most taxes were collected in the form of live stock, precious metals or labour. The tax net was wide, almost each activity was taxed that attracted smuggling and tax evasion. Penalties under Hammurabi code was too tough, non payment of taxes on harvest, cheating or theft. In the same time the code was relaxed to those who lost crop or suffered loss in commerce or trading due to disaster or other mishap, was freed from tax payment.
Finally, the prosperous civilization too was not immortal and had to face environmental change, regional war, over urban population and declined resources, which weakened this civilization and fell to Achaemenid Persian Empire. This civilization’s elaborate means of economics was gift to next civilizations.

1.     Now the priority of inhabitants and dynasties were upgrading living standard indicates nation and individual grew economically. Priorities shifted from mere essentials to comfort such as keeping slaves, decoration and fashion. Rising income created huge demand for luxury goods such as ornaments, potteries and decorative items.

2.     Use of slaves reduced cost of agriculture and commercial activities that led to huge margins to the owners. Babylonia defeating kingdom of Judah, imprisoned soldiers and inhabitants as slaves, used them in agriculture without any remuneration. During this period male & female slaves were displayed for purchase and sale, value depended on the worth of a slave. This practice continued until Persian king Cyrus the saviour invaded and forced release of slaves.

3.     Economic growth and surplus funds allured inventions and discoveries. Sumerians of this civilization invented writing helped keeping record of economic transactions. And introduced law of conduct applicable to all, for uninterrupted social order.

4.     Economic growth built trade and cultural relationship with neighbouring regions, which exchanged discoveries, developed literacy and knowledge, social beliefs and customs.

5.     Therefore, the economics is a science that exists whether fails or survives as long as human needs exist. The growth is measured by standard of living and consumption pattern. The economics is integral part of social systems as economic functions are to gratify social needs for its inhabitants. The social potency lies on its economic growth and stability.

6.     The regions in Mesopotamia’s economic growth diverted attention from agriculture to more profitable occupation. Lacking innovation in irrigation & agriculture lapsed focus on solving mineral salts layer problem in cultivable lands, (about 2300 BC) drastically reduced agricultural productions was foremost reason for its weakening. The weak regions were prone to invasion for wealth and minerals. The expansion does not mean to neglect the base on which the economic growth erected.

Read full article and economy of other civilizations:
Economics and the Civilizations
Mother’s instinct, emotion & attentive nurturing together privileged upper hand in the family. Her extreme sacrifice protecting children & family revered her as saviour honoured her as Mother Goddess
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fantasus View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote fantasus Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27 Nov 2013 at 18:27
Originally posted by sadashivan sadashivan wrote:

Some 200,000 years back “Homo Sapiens” evolved in Africa. Apart from learning technique for making stone tools they developed abstract art engraving on ostrich shells, bone & shell jewellery and sharp bone tools. Human instinct to live together formed societies, which helped moving forward in many groups; about 60,000 years back they spread out into the rest of the world. Essence of economics existed even during that period, which behaved them to migrate from Africa as first human species. Migration “out of Africa” improved locating new resources and survival tools. While, in many parts they had to compete with their ancestors “Neanderthals” or "Homo Erectus" who migrated from Africa earlier. The theory of Neanderthals/Homo Erectus and Homo sapiens interbreeding or wiped out by Homo sapiens or became extinct are still a disputed arguments among explorers. Ancient ancestors migrated from Africa had an economic goal “survival”.

1.     Migration is always an economic activity whether ancient ancestors or present modern human. The economics is a process of managing continued existence, resources and consumption.

2.     Human’s or any specie’s basic instinct is to store the remaining after consumption, for the future needs is “saving”. “Exchange” is interchanging surplus or unneeded for currently required. These two factors “Save” and “Exchange” significant as “save” signifies “Banking” and “Exchange” signifies “trade” in modern economic world. Save and exchange are integral parts of the definition of economics.

3.     In any civilization whether Stone Age or Iron Age or our modern times, activities carried out that creates environment to survive or secures survival is the economic activity.

Evolution of managing economics expanded farther during first historic civilization some 8000 years ago through farmers in Mesopotamia. Farmers benefited from Tigris and Euphrates rivers and its fertile lands. In Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer, Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires all natives to the territory of modern-day Iraq (Wikipedia). They began to grow grains and domesticated animals which provided an alternative food and compost for agricultural land. As the population grew feeding became a challenging task. They invented a methodical form of irrigation system using canals and dams that converted barren to fertile land. This developed irrigation system transformed agricultural outlook and grew trade relationships.

Rising agricultural economy allowed trade to grow and develop markets, which later transformed to cities. Economic movement and growth eased expansion of urban cities. The first big city was Uruk (4400-3100 BC) later became Babylonia. Advancement of agriculture and over production initiated finding ways to dispose opened international trade routes to Egypt, Indus Valley and other parts. Imports and Exports were mainly done on equal value of merchandise, later exchanged with silver and precious metals. Economic activities evolved and trade became the major avenue to relationship with foreign countries helped extending exchange of discoveries, culture, and religion.

The people of Mesopotamia invented earliest form of writing called cuneiform, was an added value to record production and marketing. Both barter and money systems prevailed in trading activity. Banking system was introduced that made methods of transactions easier in the form of clay tablets engraved notes and ring moneys. Similar to present banking systems, Mesopotamian banks too received deposits, lend on interest. This civilization’s economic system was more or less similar to present private participation but in the control of dynasties. Dynasties controlled land, people, military and economy under Hammurabi code (1795-1750 BC). A tax system was introduced by dynasties, which was binding to all traders and citizens. Most taxes were collected in the form of live stock, precious metals or labour. The tax net was wide, almost each activity was taxed that attracted smuggling and tax evasion. Penalties under Hammurabi code was too tough, non payment of taxes on harvest, cheating or theft. In the same time the code was relaxed to those who lost crop or suffered loss in commerce or trading due to disaster or other mishap, was freed from tax payment.
Finally, the prosperous civilization too was not immortal and had to face environmental change, regional war, over urban population and declined resources, which weakened this civilization and fell to Achaemenid Persian Empire. This civilization’s elaborate means of economics was gift to next civilizations.

1.     Now the priority of inhabitants and dynasties were upgrading living standard indicates nation and individual grew economically. Priorities shifted from mere essentials to comfort such as keeping slaves, decoration and fashion. Rising income created huge demand for luxury goods such as ornaments, potteries and decorative items.

2.     Use of slaves reduced cost of agriculture and commercial activities that led to huge margins to the owners. Babylonia defeating kingdom of Judah, imprisoned soldiers and inhabitants as slaves, used them in agriculture without any remuneration. During this period male & female slaves were displayed for purchase and sale, value depended on the worth of a slave. This practice continued until Persian king Cyrus the saviour invaded and forced release of slaves.

3.     Economic growth and surplus funds allured inventions and discoveries. Sumerians of this civilization invented writing helped keeping record of economic transactions. And introduced law of conduct applicable to all, for uninterrupted social order.

4.     Economic growth built trade and cultural relationship with neighbouring regions, which exchanged discoveries, developed literacy and knowledge, social beliefs and customs.

5.     Therefore, the economics is a science that exists whether fails or survives as long as human needs exist. The growth is measured by standard of living and consumption pattern. The economics is integral part of social systems as economic functions are to gratify social needs for its inhabitants. The social potency lies on its economic growth and stability.

6.     The regions in Mesopotamia’s economic growth diverted attention from agriculture to more profitable occupation. Lacking innovation in irrigation & agriculture lapsed focus on solving mineral salts layer problem in cultivable lands, (about 2300 BC) drastically reduced agricultural productions was foremost reason for its weakening. The weak regions were prone to invasion for wealth and minerals. The expansion does not mean to neglect the base on which the economic growth erected.

Read full article and economy of other civilizations:
Economics and the Civilizations
While human beings, ion fact every living being on earth, always had "material needs", I doubt economics as we know it is any "universal science". At least we have to stretch notions to be too broad. Let us only look at a few examples, as "national product", "savings", "market", "growth", "innovation". I doubt sumerian and contempoprary societies are that easy to compare on these.
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