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Russian fall from power?

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fantasus View Drop Down
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    Posted: 04 Dec 2014 at 14:07
After the end of other european powers as significant empires on a global scale, are we now witnessing the end of Russias status as a "world-empire"? Or will it one way or another reemerge on the international stage? Russia existed as a state, or as a number of principalities from long ago, at least over a millenium but the russian empire of later centuries started out as a modest principality of Moscow, and became relatively late a power also of significance from "western" european point of view. 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Captain Vancouver Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04 Dec 2014 at 19:07
I think Russia has already receded from great power status, and will continue to do so. Economically, they represent something like 3 or 4% of the world economy, as apposed to 40%+ for the western nations.

They have oil and gas, but that is becoming less significant as unconventional sources of fossil fuels are exploited, such as shale oil and the Alberta tar sands. The price of oil is now dropping fast, a big problem for the Russians.

They have a huge armaments industry, but again, this is becoming less significant as more nations develop industry and defense related technology. Advances in computer technology have also helped to level the playing field, allowing even modest economies to afford significant defense technology.

They have no allies worth mentioning, unless some are enthusiastic about Belarus or Moldavia. 

Investors are starting to be wary of Russian companies and capital projects, capital outflow is increasing, and the value of the Ruble is dropping fast.

They have managed to rub about 80% of the world the wrong way. History doesn't look bright for Russia right now.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05 Dec 2014 at 05:41
Originally posted by Captain Vancouver Captain Vancouver wrote:

I think Russia has already receded from great power status, and will continue to do so. Economically, they represent something like 3 or 4% of the world economy, as apposed to 40%+ for the western nations.

They have oil and gas, but that is becoming less significant as unconventional sources of fossil fuels are exploited, such as shale oil and the Alberta tar sands. The price of oil is now dropping fast, a big problem for the Russians.

They have a huge armaments industry, but again, this is becoming less significant as more nations develop industry and defense related technology. Advances in computer technology have also helped to level the playing field, allowing even modest economies to afford significant defense technology.

They have no allies worth mentioning, unless some are enthusiastic about Belarus or Moldavia. 

Investors are starting to be wary of Russian companies and capital projects, capital outflow is increasing, and the value of the Ruble is dropping fast.

They have managed to rub about 80% of the world the wrong way. History doesn't look bright for Russia right now.


Captain:

I agree with you. While Russia has some support from countries like Cuba, in world terms it is quickly becoming irrelevant. I think Putin recognises this and that is part of the reason for the incursions into the Ukraine.

On the world stage, Russia has well and truly been replaced by China and India as economic powers, as well as military powers.

Russias only remaining claim to fame is it's power of veto in the UN Security Council, and this power should be eliminated anyway, so that all voices are equal.



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Alburz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05 Dec 2014 at 05:44
Hopefully we will see less of the Russian aggressions. 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05 Dec 2014 at 05:54
Originally posted by Alburz Alburz wrote:

Hopefully we will see less of the Russian aggressions. 


I think it's fairly obvious that Putin longs for the power and glory of the former USSR and annexation of Crimea is only the first step in a probable testing of the worlds tolerance to his adventures.

Chechnya, Georgia and other small satellites of the old union could well be next, for no other reason than he can.

What would be interesting would be if China stepped in, mobilised and told him to stop.



Edited by toyomotor - 05 Dec 2014 at 05:55
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote fantasus Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05 Dec 2014 at 08:34
Originally posted by toyomotor toyomotor wrote:

Originally posted by Alburz Alburz wrote:

Hopefully we will see less of the Russian aggressions. 


I think it's fairly obvious that Putin longs for the power and glory of the former USSR and annexation of Crimea is only the first step in a probable testing of the worlds tolerance to his adventures.

Chechnya, Georgia and other small satellites of the old union could well be next, for no other reason than he can.

What would be interesting would be if China stepped in, mobilised and told him to stop.

It is hard to see why the chinese would so, as long as the russians don´t touch their interests.
Today they would rather see the russian assertiveness as "usefull", since it draw attention from themselves and may be seen as countering "western" influence.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05 Dec 2014 at 13:13
Originally posted by fantasus fantasus wrote:


Originally posted by toyomotor toyomotor wrote:

Originally posted by Alburz Alburz wrote:

Hopefully we will see less of the Russian aggressions. 


I think it's fairly obvious that Putin longs for the power and glory of the former USSR and annexation of Crimea is only the first step in a probable testing of the worlds tolerance to his adventures.

Chechnya, Georgia and other small satellites of the old union could well be next, for no other reason than he can.

What would be interesting would be if China stepped in, mobilised and told him to stop.

It is hard to see why the chinese would so, as long as the russians don´t touch their interests.
Today they would rather see the russian assertiveness as "usefull", since it draw attention from themselves and may be seen as countering "western" influence.


No, what I meant was that if Russian expansionism posed a threat to Chinese resources or markets, they might (or might not) stand up to Putin.

I agree with what you say, because in order to upset China, Russia would have to make some moves on Mongolia, Tibet etc. and I doubt that they would have much that Russia wants.

It was a pure speculation on my part.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21 Dec 2014 at 09:56
Putin is playing mind games with his smaller neighbours and even some of the Scandinavian countries.

While attention is focused on the Crimea invasion, Russian fighters are doing fly-overs, ships and submarines are doing sneaky marine incursions.

But in this, Putin is also playing with fire, because some of the Scandinavian countries are prepared to sink unauthorised submarines in their waters.

I often wonder why I try.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (1) Thanks(1)   Quote Captain Vancouver Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21 Dec 2014 at 16:24
Maybe it's short man syndrome: he may feel the need to compensate for a weak position.

Because it is weak. Putin has staked his future on oil and gas revenues, and now they are plummeting. Sanctions mean difficulty in accessing capital markets. Inflation is nudging 10%, there is some panic buying in stores. Worker's wages are dropping sharply against inflation and the cost of imported goods.

The hubris generated by fighters flying overhead only works so far, and not very far at all when people are agonizing over their financial security.

I wouldn't be surprised to hear, sometime next year, that Mr Putin has sadly had an "accident" while hunting Siberian tigers, and is now dead, and the new president is a bit more globally minded. 



Edited by Captain Vancouver - 21 Dec 2014 at 16:25
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22 Dec 2014 at 01:58
Shades of Uncle Joe Stalin!

But you could well be right. I don't think the majority of Russian people view the possibility of bread queues with much relish.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22 Feb 2015 at 02:25
Over recent months, with the incursion into the Ukraine still raging, Russia has on a number of occasions trespassed into the skies over smaller neighbours.
 
Is Putin preparing for a push into the Baltic States, or does he have something far greater in mind? Who knows, but if these overflights continue in such a provocative manner, I see no friendly outcome.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote caldrail Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22 Feb 2015 at 11:54
I'd hardly call Russia 'irrelevant'. NATO are concerned about the potential of the baltic states as flashpoints with Putin's current penchant for assisting russian speaking populations in neighbouring countriies. They've started testing British airspace again so I notice, a throwback to Cold War days, and just the other day I saw an interesting video from a Russian 'Bear' recce plane as two RAF Typhoons closed in on formation to escort the Russians away.

Further, although Russia has fallen from the grace it earned after the Cold War ended, it is nonetheless a large country with plenty of resources, not least of which is the natural gas it supplies to Europe. In fact, Russia's current belligerence is causing a lot of concern. One expert recently said Britain did not have the forces to defend itself against Russian attack.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Zagros Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Mar 2015 at 15:51
Originally posted by fantasus fantasus wrote:

After the end of other european powers as significant empires on a global scale, are we now witnessing the end of Russias status as a "world-empire"? 


Russia isn't a world empire and has not had that status for decades, if not a century.  It is a Federal State with an elected president.  And no. It is not falling from power.  I mean if all the tricks in the book short of a full blown war did not achieve the goal of bringing Iran down, what hope is there against Russia?

If you view things from the Russian perspective beyond media hyperbole and jingoism then you can see Russia's actions as pragmatic (perhaps a little full-on but pragmatic none-the-less) countermeasures to NATO encroachment starting with membership expansion, through that ridiculously reasoned missile defence shield and culminating in the violent overthrow of Yanukovich in Ukraine - you can see that as Russia's red line.  I am sure America wouldn't take too kindly to Mexico's government being replaced with a pro-Russian regime.

Of no little significance either is America's attempt pre-Putin to ravage Russia's resources and economy from the inside either during the Yeltsin days.

http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/who-is-the-bully-the-united-states-has-treated-russia-like-a-loser-since-the-cold-war/2014/03/14/b0868882-aa06-11e3-8599-ce7295b6851c_story.html

Russia did not have to be an enemy but the Western political and industrial elite's raison d'etre depends on a perpetual pipeline of them.

I don't expect this comment to be received well since judging by the above posts most people here have been reduced to name-calling and fantasy about Russia.

"There was glory in pissing, Corabb decided as he watched the stream curve out and make that familiar but unique sound as it hit the ground." So true.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote franciscosan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05 Jul 2015 at 03:52
How many time zones does Russia have?  There may be some brake-aways, but I would say it still has a substantial portion of its empire.  Would one imagine Germany in WWII if one looked at it right after WWI?  Russia could still be dangerous to its neighbors, or rather is still dangerous to some of its neighbors.  I am not sure what Zagros is referring to, as far as "America's attempt to ravage Russia's resources" is concerned.  If he means making deals with ex-KGB oligarchs, for oil?  Well, that is who is still in control these days (albeit a different tyrant).  One should hardly look at the Russian power struggles for gasprom in the light of good guys versus bad.  For that matter, I am not sure that America can do any more damage than the native Russians have done themselves, Chernobyl was just the tip of the disaster iceberg in the former USSR.
Putin is hardly a saint, but we should make sure we don't get worked up about our own propaganda.  

One thing though, is that it is easy for Putin to have Russia play the martyr for the domestic audience.  If you don't agree with Putin, then it is obvious that you are under the influence of the West.  Media is tied up in a nice package under control of the Kremlin.  It is hard to have an alternative view, when 1) your loyalty to the Russian culture is questioned, 2) when only officially sanctioned views get on public media.

Ethnic Russians do have problems in Georgia, Ukraine, etc.  But also, look upon it from the Ukrainians, etc. if one lets the ethnic Russians have what they want, they will want to invite Russia in, if you don't let ethnic Russians have what they want, the Russians will come in and will claim to be saving them.  Lose-Lose:(

Kasparov, the chess champion, is an opposition leader, and I wonder if part of the "reason" for that is that how can anyone question the "ethnicity" of a champion of the Russian national past-time of Chess?


Edited by franciscosan - 05 Jul 2015 at 05:03
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote wolfhnd Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05 Jul 2015 at 06:24
Originally posted by franciscosan franciscosan wrote:

How many time zones does Russia have?  There may be some brake-aways, but I would say it still has a substantial portion of its empire.  Would one imagine Germany in WWII if one looked at it right after WWI?  Russia could still be dangerous to its neighbors, or rather is still dangerous to some of its neighbors.  I am not sure what Zagros is referring to, as far as "America's attempt to ravage Russia's resources" is concerned.  If he means making deals with ex-KGB oligarchs, for oil?  Well, that is who is still in control these days (albeit a different tyrant).  One should hardly look at the Russian power struggles for gasprom in the light of good guys versus bad.  For that matter, I am not sure that America can do any more damage than the native Russians have done themselves, Chernobyl was just the tip of the disaster iceberg in the former USSR.
Putin is hardly a saint, but we should make sure we don't get worked up about our own propaganda.  

One thing though, is that it is easy for Putin to have Russia play the martyr for the domestic audience.  If you don't agree with Putin, then it is obvious that you are under the influence of the West.  Media is tied up in a nice package under control of the Kremlin.  It is hard to have an alternative view, when 1) your loyalty to the Russian culture is questioned, 2) when only officially sanctioned views get on public media.

Ethnic Russians do have problems in Georgia, Ukraine, etc.  But also, look upon it from the Ukrainians, etc. if one lets the ethnic Russians have what they want, they will want to invite Russia in, if you don't let ethnic Russians have what they want, the Russians will come in and will claim to be saving them.  Lose-Lose:(

Kasparov, the chess champion, is an opposition leader, and I wonder if part of the "reason" for that is that how can anyone question the "ethnicity" of a champion of the Russian national past-time of Chess?

Well the same people the Russians suspect of "Ravishing" their economy don't mind doing the same thing here and getting bailed out when they mess up.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote franciscosan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05 Jul 2015 at 19:39
So BP got bailed out after the Gulf oil spill?  That is who supplied the Russians with oil technology and then were told to leave.  So the 'too big to fail' banks were involved in Russia?  You're mixing apples and oranges i am afraid.  Russia "suspected" something alright, that Western businesses and NGOs would not play ball with their corrupt system.  A problem with government contracts is that they are only enforceable if the government wants them to be.  I suspect that being "offended" happened first and then came the crime to get rid of the offender.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote wolfhnd Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 Jul 2015 at 04:20
I'm not defending Russia but at times the Russian oligarchs looks a lot like our crony capitalist.  
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote caldrail Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 Jul 2015 at 13:59
Actually the realtionship between the USA and post-1917 Russia have been very awkward. Until just before WW2, America and Russia weren't even talking to each other, and spent decades after WW2 worrying whether the other was about to launch a first strike nuclear attack.Some Russians have made fortunes going capitalist, but the old antipathy still exists, and for that matter a great many older Russians do look back at the Stalinist period in rose tinted terms. For all the tyranny and poverty, they were looked after, with jobs of life, and so forth. The problem with countries turning to capitalist ways is that they quickly find how many people fall by the wayside without assistance.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Windemere Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 Jul 2015 at 18:42
Russia went through a period of turmoil following the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. But I think that it has now weathered that storm, and is looking to regain its former glory. This was clearly the message that it was sending in the spectacles it put on during the Winter Olympics a few years ago. More recently, Russia didn't hesitate to act, and speedily re-annexed the Crimea when the pro-Russian government in the Ukraine was overthrown, and a pro-Western government installed in its place. Putin seems to be willing to accept confrontation, and doesn't seem likely to readily back down.  Russia is also clearly aiding the rebels in eastern Ukraine. And as previously mentioned, much of western Europe remains dependent upon Russian gas. Although many of the Baltic and Eastern European nations that were previously part of the Soviet Union, or its satellites, have now joined NATO, they would be well-advised to pursue a cautious international policy (as does Finland ) and avoid provoking Russia. Russia is surely apprehensive about NATO's expansion.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote franciscosan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 Jul 2015 at 20:11
But the Baltic states have an additional difficulty, it is not only foreign relations with Russia about which they have to worry, but domestic relations with ethnic Russians as well.  And the two matters complicate each other, as well as for Georgia and Ukraine.  
Russia _is_ apprehensive about NATO's expansion.  They would like to regain their sphere of influence, but most of their sphere of influence would _not_ like to "regain" them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote wolfhnd Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 Jul 2015 at 20:44
I think it is clear it would have been better if the U.S.S.R. had not dissolved but had evolved into a collection of democratic states.  I'm not terribly convinced that nationalism, tribalism, ethnic pride and diversity are that important of issues when it comes to human rights.

The European Union is a fairly descent example of what could have been if Eastern Europe was not so divided by ethnic hatred. 
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You seem to be assuming that USSR _could_have_ evolved into a collection of democratic states.  Could a leopard change its spots?  Nationalism, tribalism, ethnic pride and diversity are issues through which one has to navigate in promoting human rights.  All that fits into culture, and there is no such thing as a person outside of culture.  Woodrow Wilson kind of opened that can of worms (self-determinations of ethnic peoples), although it was potentially there before him.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote wolfhnd Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08 Jul 2015 at 03:07
Originally posted by franciscosan franciscosan wrote:

You seem to be assuming that USSR _could_have_ evolved into a collection of democratic states.  Could a leopard change its spots?  Nationalism, tribalism, ethnic pride and diversity are issues through which one has to navigate in promoting human rights.  All that fits into culture, and there is no such thing as a person outside of culture.  Woodrow Wilson kind of opened that can of worms (self-determinations of ethnic peoples), although it was potentially there before him.

No I'm only assuming that Russian nationalism and it's long history made it impossible for people with other nationalistic and ethnic identities to make the most of a difficult situation.

Humans and culture are linked at such a basic level that extends back to our earliest ancestor that it is indeed impossible to separate being human from culture.  While we are born into a culture and it fundamental determines our development it is also something we can choose.  Unlike physical evolution we can alter culture consciously.

People adopt new cultures all the time and often but not always it is an unconscious assimilation.  Cultural evolution itself is largely not the product of conscious planning but often is a reaction to changes in the environment.  It is ironic that the same forces which allow for high fidelity of cultural transmission are often the same forces that prevent the adaptation of culture by conscious decision making. 

The close analogy between unconscious physical evolution and unconscious cultural evolution means that we should not be surprised that too high a fidelity of cultural transmission leads to stagnation.  It also should come as no surprise that cultural change that is too rapid or lacking in high fidelity transmission leads to dissolution.

What however would happen if we consciously selected the best aspect of culture for transmission much as we are preparing to do with genetic engineering.  Many people are frightened by both for good reason but the alternative is not stability it is choosing random chance over conscious selection.

I'm not in favor of a "one world government" nor terribly impressed by the U.N. .  I do think however that to end the constant cycle of what amounts to continuously escalating tribal warfare that identifying with some thing other than ethnicity would be helpful.  People can and should look at their culture and decide what is adaptive and what hinders their progress.  While there are as many definitions of progress as there are people it should be possible to identify a few universal principles.

We don't have to start from scratch as other people have worked on the problem before us.  Here is a short list that is worth considering.

Article 1.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


Article 2.

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.


Article 3.

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.


Article 4.

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.


Article 5.

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.


Article 6.

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.


Article 7.

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.


Article 8.

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.


Article 9.

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.


Article 10.

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.


Article 11.

(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.


Article 12.

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.


Article 13.

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.


Article 14.

(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.


Article 15.

(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.


Article 16.

(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.


Article 17.

(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.


Article 18.

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.


Article 19.

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.


Article 20.

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.


Article 21.

(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.


Article 22.

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.


Article 23.

(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.


Article 24.

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.


Article 25.

(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.


Article 26.

(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.


Article 27.

(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.


Article 28.

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.


Article 29.

(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.


Article 30.

Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.




       


Edited by wolfhnd - 08 Jul 2015 at 03:39
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