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    Posted: 22 Sep 2018 at 04:48

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Science News
from research organizations

Neanderthal mother, Denisovan father! Hybrid fossil

Newly-sequenced genome sheds light on interactions between ancient hominins

Date:
August 22, 2018
Source:
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Summary:
Up until 40,000 years ago, at least two groups of hominins inhabited Eurasia -- Neanderthals in the west and Denisovans in the east. Now, researchers have sequenced the genome of an ancient hominin individual from Siberia, and discovered that she had a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father.

For remainder of article, see https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180822131002.htm
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21 Sep 2018 at 01:55
Originally posted by franciscosan franciscosan wrote:

toyomotor, I just assume that you are more interested (and more knowledgeable) than me on this kind of stuff (genetics etc), so when you mentioned it one way, I was surprised but wanted to make sure that is what you wanted to say.  I was not saying you made a mistake, I was just asking what the present consensus is.  So Neanderthal and Denisovan _do_ feed into modern (or is it archaic?) homo sapiens.  Again, I assume you are more familiar with genetic questions than I am.

For racial categories (which are not a good indicator of very much), traditionally there are Europeans, Asians, and Africans.  But, from what I understand the most genetically diverse group is African, which has more diversity than both other groups (all the other continents) combined.  So the old racial categories are a little distortive about what people imagine the genetic map probably looks like.

I don't know about knowledgeable, but I am interested in genetics.

It all began when I found out that my ancient DNA was Japanese, in particular, Jomon which is the Japanese Aboriginal people. I'm a typical European with Brown hair, blue eyes and fair coloured skin, with no Asian indicators at all. Further tests show that I'm 85% UK, with a dash of European and another dash of Scandinavian.

I only say this to explain just how diverse a persons DNA can be and not a 100% description of the person concerned.

I think you're correct about the diverse population of Africa, which indicates to me that there was the mass human migration often spoken and written about, but there was also a flow back into Africa which accounts for the different DNA classifications.

To call a person African, Asian or European does not reveal their true DNA.




Edited by toyomotor - 22 Sep 2018 at 04:52
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote franciscosan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 Sep 2018 at 21:42
toyomotor, I just assume that you are more interested (and more knowledgeable) than me on this kind of stuff (genetics etc), so when you mentioned it one way, I was surprised but wanted to make sure that is what you wanted to say.  I was not saying you made a mistake, I was just asking what the present consensus is.  So Neanderthal and Denisovan _do_ feed into modern (or is it archaic?) homo sapiens.  Again, I assume you are more familiar with genetic questions than I am.

For racial categories (which are not a good indicator of very much), traditionally there are Europeans, Asians, and Africans.  But, from what I understand the most genetically diverse group is African, which has more diversity than both other groups (all the other continents) combined.  So the old racial categories are a little distortive about what people imagine the genetic map probably looks like.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Sep 2018 at 03:24
Originally posted by franciscosan franciscosan wrote:

Beyond a doubt, why?  One hears about modern humans that have Neanderthal DNA.  If that is incorrect, then please mention why it is now determined as incorrect.  It was not "beyond a doubt" before, why has that changed?  What new evidence has come to light?

So Florensis and Nadali are rather late, or so it sounds.

Sorry, my BAD, a typo.

Of course there are Homo Sapiens who carry Neanderthal and/or Denisovan genetics.

With the progress of time and technology, there could even be more surprises in store.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote franciscosan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29 Aug 2018 at 03:17
Beyond a doubt, why?  One hears about modern humans that have Neanderthal DNA.  If that is incorrect, then please mention why it is now determined as incorrect.  It was not "beyond a doubt" before, why has that changed?  What new evidence has come to light?

So Florensis and Nadali are rather late, or so it sounds.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27 Aug 2018 at 14:31
NEWS:

There is apparently now proof of cross breeding between Neanderthals and Denisovans.

That Homo Sapiens did not breed with either Neanderthals or Denisovans is now beyond doubt.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09 Jun 2018 at 03:38
Vanuatu
On the 17th of July last year you wrote

Quote

I think it was thread relating to animal diversity in the wild. The same implications apply. Anthropologists theorize that they were many bottlenecks throughout history. It's when the diversity of DNA is reduced bc of dwindling populations, disease or other losses that wipe out significant portions of a population. 

These bottle necks can reduce the alleles being passed through the mtDNA and the appearance of the alternative forms of gene mutation are reduced. Both desirable and undesirable traits. 

These bottleneck events seem to explain the diversity among human beings. The bottleneck events also support the possible "Out of Eurasia" theory. The descendants of only one female haplo group are found outside of Africa (mtDNA haplo group 3). They say only 2,000 mating pairs made the first walk out of Africa. But you knew that :)

Good Quote:
" Scientists have mapped these events to geographic choke points around the world, based on decreasing genetic diversity as we migrated.

One bottleneck occurred when a small group of humans left Africa. Another happened when this group split up in the Middle East, with some of us heading to Europe and others to Asia. Others occurred when we left Southeast Asia for Austronesia, crossed the Beringia land bridge into Alaska, and spread into South America through what is now Panama.

This is why African populations tend to have far more genetic diversity in their DNA than populations native to the Americas.

It's also why, when you compare humans to other species, human DNA is not very diverse when you consider our globe-spanning range."


Ancient Origins has now published an article which suggests that the YDNA "BACKLOG" that occurred about 7000 years ago could have been brought about by continual warring which reduced the available "stock" of YDNA.

See http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/neolithic-male-genetic-diversity-0010177.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Vanuatu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28 Mar 2018 at 03:57
Taforalt is a cave in northern Oujda, Morocco, and the oldest known cemetery in the world. It contained at least 34 Iberomaurusian human skeletons dated to the Epipaleolithic between 15,100 and 14,000 years ago. Wikipedia
Excavation dates1944–1947, 1950–1955, 1969-1977, 2003-2017 (ongoing)
Locationnear Taforalt village, northern Oujda region

Oldest Human DNA from Africa Reveals Clues About a Mysterious Ancient Culture

By  | 

Contrary to the theory that Europeans from Sicily or the Iberian Peninsula were buried at Grotte des Pigeons, the analysis revealed no genetic link to southern Europe. Instead, the results, which were reported March 15 in the journal Science, showed that about two-thirds of the Iberomaurusian DNA matched closely with that of ancient Natufians, a later culture that existed in the Middle East, which suggests the Grotte des Pigeons people and the Natufians shared common ancestors from North Africa or the Middle East.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 Dec 2017 at 07:52
Originally posted by Vanuatu Vanuatu wrote:

National Geographic reports thousands of remains humans and others in the Rising Star Cave system.
And now the question of who created all those tools is actually debatable. Scientists call the adult male skeleton Naledi, "Neo."  Smile



Just as an aside-I know bloody well you aren't one of my rib bones!
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 17 Nov 2017 at 23:17
Quote http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-evolution-human-origins/rewriting-our-origins-skull-found-china-promotes-wider-perspective-021721

When the ‘Dali skull’ was found in the Shaanxi province of China in 1978 researchers believed it was a mostly intact skull of a Homo erectus . Yet a publication in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology reports that a more recent examination of the skull suggests it is an example of Pleistocene Homo sapiens in what is now China. Xinzhi Wu of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing has noted that these physical similarities show Homo erectus most likely shared DNA with Homo sapiens . (Extract only)

Would there be any reason to suspect that one species of Homo suddenly stopped and a new species commenced? Of course not.

Certainly with the evolution of Homo there would have been admixtures of Denisovan, Neanderthal and probably other species, with Homo.

I don't find it at all surprising that this evidence is being uncovered, and, as science progresses, I have no doubt that other DNA admixtures will be found.

 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16 Oct 2017 at 18:51
Originally posted by Vanuatu Vanuatu wrote:

National Geographic reports thousands of remains humans and others in the Rising Star Cave system.
And now the question of who created all those tools is actually debatable. Scientists call the adult male skeleton Naledi, "Neo."  Smile




Yes, wondered about that, especially as Naledi predates the others I mentioned, or seems to.

Bit by bit the puzzle is being filled in, but I expect even more revelations in the not too distant future.

Quote

Homo naledi discovered in an African cave

Fifteen skeletons found in the Rising Star Cave, South Africa, offer evidence of a previously unknown branch of the genus Homo.  Hundreds of fossil bones from these skeletons show feet and hands similar to living humans, combined with high shoulders, broad pelvis, and a flared ribcage typical of Australopithecus, the likely ancestor of Homo.

The human-like features mean that the fossil bones are best placed in the genus Homo. Yet features typical of Australopithecus, including long, curved finger bones, hint at the importance of tree-climbing in this bipedal group.

Since this combination of traits is unknown in the fossil record until now, the research team gives the fossils a new species name – Homo naledi.

Many questions arise from the discovery. The cave sediments and bones have yet to be dated. The individuals were dropped into the cave, raising the question of how the bodies got there. No stone tools or other cultural remains were found.

The discovery was announced by Dr. Lee Berger and his research team in the online journal eLife on September 10, 2015. (http://humanorigins.si.edu/research/whats-hot-human-origins/welcome-new-member-our-family-tree0




Edited by toyomotor - 13 Dec 2017 at 23:38
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Vanuatu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16 Oct 2017 at 13:37
National Geographic reports thousands of remains humans and others in the Rising Star Cave system.
And now the question of who created all those tools is actually debatable. Scientists call the adult male skeleton Naledi, "Neo."  Smile


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15 Oct 2017 at 09:59
And now we have Homo Naledi.

Believed to predate Neanderthals and Denisovans.

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_naledi

Quote
Homo naledi is an extinct species of hominin, which anthropologists first described in 2015 and have assigned to the genus Homo.[2] In 2013, fossil skeletons were found in the Gauteng province of South Africa, in the Rising Star Cavesystem, part of the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site about 50 km (31 mi) northwest of Johannesburg.[2][3]Prior to dating, initial judgement based on archaic features of its anatomy favoured an age of roughly two million years old.[3] In 2017, however, the fossils were dated to between 335,000 and 236,000 years ago, long after much larger-brained and more modern-looking hominins had appeared.[1][4] The research team therefore thinks that H. naledi is not a direct ancestor of modern humans, although it is probably an offshoot within the genus Homo.[5]
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (1) Thanks(1)   Quote Vanuatu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01 Oct 2017 at 22:44
Who else?


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26 Sep 2017 at 07:54
Quote  it's so sad and sickening

I totally agree.

Who inserted
Quote *off topic warning
?
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Vanuatu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26 Sep 2017 at 03:33
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/jan/09/congo.jamesastill

Marauding rebels are massacring and eating pygmies in the dense forests of north-east Congo, according to UN officials who are investigating allegations of cannibalism in Ituri province, where fighting between several rebel groups has displaced about 150,000 people in the past month.

Many of the displaced tell of rebel fighters capturing and butchering pygmies, Manoddje Mounoubai, spokesman for the UN ceasefire monitoring mission in Congo, said yesterday.

The UN had sent six officials to investigate the accusation as well as other human rights abuses, he said.

Other UN officials in the capital, Kinshasa, and the eastern city of Goma said that widespread cannibalism had already been established.

"Ituri is completely out of control and cannibalism is just the latest atrocity taking place," said one, who asked not to be named until the investigators deliver their report. "Perhaps this will finally alert the world to what's going on."Congo rebels are eating pygmies, UN says.

*off topic warning





Edited by Vanuatu - 26 Sep 2017 at 03:34
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Vanuatu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26 Sep 2017 at 03:24
Originally posted by toyomotor toyomotor wrote:

Originally posted by Vanuatu Vanuatu wrote:

So the hominid would have been a little bigger than H. floresiensus . Looks like omnivore teeth but they are not worn.?

Amazing finds! We are seeing this at a faster pace than ever before. Is it because the world is getting so small?
 

Yes, bigger than floriensis, more like neanderthal in size I think.
 I wonder if floriensis was related to the modern day African Bushmen, or San, a tribe of small people from South and Eastern Africa, or even African Pygmies

Quote from Wiki-Various Y chromosome studies show that the San carry some of the most divergent (oldest) human Y-chromosome haplogroups. These haplogroups are specific sub-groups of haplogroups A and B, the two earliest branches on the human Y-chromosome tree.[48][49][50]

Mitochondrial DNA studies also provide evidence that the San carry high frequencies of the earliest haplogroupbranches in the human mitochondrial DNA tree. This DNA is inherited only from one's mother. The most divergent (oldest) mitochondrial haplogroup, L0d, has been identified at its highest frequencies in the southern African San groups.[48][51][52][53]


I agree, scientifically, the world, and all in it, are growing smaller on a daily basis.


Right bc they are bigger than Australopithecus , Lucy and H. Florensiensus  they are something like a different type of human 700,000 ypb.

On a disturbing note, you mention the Pygmies. My whole life I remember being fascinated and awed that humans could be so different and so similar. 

Now In the Central African Republic, war and deforestation has driven many people into the jungle for "bush meat." They are eating exotic animals that are usually protected by law bc they are hungry, war disrupts everything. And now in one of the last places on earth where Pygmies live they are being hunted as bush meat. 
Not being a smart*ss here, it's so sad and sickening. Pretty much speechless.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 25 Sep 2017 at 08:09
Originally posted by Vanuatu Vanuatu wrote:

So the hominid would have been a little bigger than H. floresiensus . Looks like omnivore teeth but they are not worn.?

Amazing finds! We are seeing this at a faster pace than ever before. Is it because the world is getting so small?
 

Yes, bigger than floriensis, more like neanderthal in size I think.
 I wonder if floriensis was related to the modern day African Bushmen, or San, a tribe of small people from South and Eastern Africa, or even African Pygmies

Quote from Wiki-Various Y chromosome studies show that the San carry some of the most divergent (oldest) human Y-chromosome haplogroups. These haplogroups are specific sub-groups of haplogroups A and B, the two earliest branches on the human Y-chromosome tree.[48][49][50]

Mitochondrial DNA studies also provide evidence that the San carry high frequencies of the earliest haplogroupbranches in the human mitochondrial DNA tree. This DNA is inherited only from one's mother. The most divergent (oldest) mitochondrial haplogroup, L0d, has been identified at its highest frequencies in the southern African San groups.[48][51][52][53]


I agree, scientifically, the world, and all in it, are growing smaller on a daily basis.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Vanuatu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 25 Sep 2017 at 00:44
So the hominid would have been a little bigger than H. floresiensus . Looks like omnivore teeth but they are not worn.?

Amazing finds! We are seeing this at a faster pace than ever before. Is it because the world is getting so small?

 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (1) Thanks(1)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23 Sep 2017 at 07:14
Vanuatu

See the below link to read about Homo Naledi, another newly found species of genus Homo.

Quote

Abstract

Homo naledi is a previously-unknown species of extinct hominin discovered within the Dinaledi Chamber of the Rising Star cave system, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa. This species is characterized by body mass and stature similar to small-bodied human populations but a small endocranial volume similar to australopiths. Cranial morphology of H. naledi is unique, but most similar to early Homo species including Homo erectusHomo habilis or Homo rudolfensis. While primitive, the dentition is generally small and simple in occlusal morphology. H. naledi has humanlike manipulatory adaptations of the hand and wrist. It also exhibits a humanlike foot and lower limb. These humanlike aspects are contrasted in the postcrania with a more primitive or australopith-like trunk, shoulder, pelvis and proximal femur. Representing at least 15 individuals with most skeletal elements repeated multiple times, this is the largest assemblage of a single species of hominins yet discovered in Africa.

These proto-humans, as far as I can tell predated Homo Sapiens and the great Out of Africa Migration. Scientists have yet to advise on the fossils' age.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15 Sep 2017 at 02:58
Originally posted by Vanuatu Vanuatu wrote:

The location is markedly left out of the article. I would have liked to know.

I agree. I would like to know the nationality of my blue eyed ancestor, especially considering that I have blue eyes and Scandinavian DNA. 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Vanuatu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14 Sep 2017 at 17:10
The location is markedly left out of the article. I would have liked to know.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14 Sep 2017 at 08:11
Originally posted by Vanuatu Vanuatu wrote:

Originally posted by toyomotor toyomotor wrote:

The lastest revelation from scientists is that all people with blue eyes inherited the blue eye gene from the same ancient ancestor.

How's that?   Big smile

Pretty mind blowing  Big smile 
seems like there should have been world wide spontaneous events of eye pigment switch- off.

What area of the world did this ancestor come from?  

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080130170343.htm

The article doesn't say, but the researcher is Danish, so it could be that it was Scandinavia, which would not be surprising.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Vanuatu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14 Sep 2017 at 06:16
Originally posted by toyomotor toyomotor wrote:

The lastest revelation from scientists is that all people with blue eyes inherited the blue eye gene from the same ancient ancestor.

How's that?   Big smile

Pretty mind blowing  Big smile 
seems like there should have been world wide spontaneous events of eye pigment switch- off.

What area of the world did this ancestor come from?  
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11 Sep 2017 at 09:48
The lastest revelation from scientists is that all people with blue eyes inherited the blue eye gene from the same ancient ancestor.

How's that?   Big smile
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (1) Thanks(1)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27 Aug 2017 at 01:15
Evidence is mounting for an "Out of Asia" origins of Homo Sapiens, but I'm not sure how it will pan out, as the "Out of Africa" school of thought is in no way diminished.

It seems that the Out of Asian Homo Sapiens are the ones who show evidence of stronger ties to Neanderthals than the Africans.

My take on it is that that the Asians and the Neanderthals lived and cohabited together for a longer period that first thought, in a fairly localised area, and that's why some people have stronger traces of Neanderthal DNA than others.

Scientists are still working on this, and eventually, hopefully, we will find out which original group was the earliest and by how long.

We've also recently found out that indigenous Americans and Australians arrived in country earlier than first thought. The Australians still remain the oldest culture on earth, and their arrival date is now estimated to have been more in the region of 65 to 100K years ago.

What also is of interest is the fact that there seems to be no firm opinion on the first New Zealanders, with Polynesians being the favourite bet, but not all agree.



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (1) Thanks(1)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16 Jul 2017 at 05:37
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On the topic of Denisovans and Neanderthals, Dienekes Ponticles says this,
Quote
The authors interpret the new result from HST as placing a lower boundary on an introgression from Africans to Neandertals at more than 290kya, which explains why Africans are genomically closer to Neandertals than to Denisovans.

Of course, when one looks at the mitochondrial phylogeny, it has the form:

(Denisovans, (Neandertals, Modern Humans))

Within the Modern Humans, Eurasians are a branch of a tree which is mostly African. This has been interpreted for decades as evidence for the Out of Africa hypothesis for the origin of Modern Humans. But, within the phylogeny as a whole, Modern Humans are a branch of the Eurasian tree. This has not (why?) in general been interpreted as evidence for Out of Eurasia for the common ancestor of Modern Humans and Neandertals.

It seems to me that this hypothesis, that Modern Humans and Neandertals stem from a non-African ancestor (a non-African population of H. heidelbergensis, for example), has much to recommend it.
See the rest of his comments at http://dienekes.blogspot.com.au/

When a respected anthropologist such as Dienekes leans toward non African population of early forms of human, I must put aside my inclination towards the total Out of Africa theory.

It seems that an Out of Eurasia theory is now gaining more traction and it may eventuate that there will be two or more origins of Homo Sapiens Sapiens.

His writings would dispel, I would think, the possibility of an east/west split.




Edited by toyomotor - 16 Jul 2017 at 05:39
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 Jul 2017 at 05:54
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Quote In the east, they became Denisovans. In the west, they became Neanderthals. The 430,000-year-old fossils at Sima de los Huesos — Neanderthals with Denisovanlike genes — capture the early stage of that split.

I'm not sure about that. I've not read any authoratative reports that say that and I'm not sure of the time period overlap, whether or not it would permit that sort of development and later split.

Love to see some scientific report.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Vanuatu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 Jul 2017 at 05:12
Have you read this? It's dated 7 days ago.

http://www.livinganthropologically.com/biological-anthropology/denisovans-neandertals-human-races/
Findings published in July 2017 seem to help resolve some of the puzzles that the 2010-2012 discoveries raised. As Carl Zimmer reports in the New York Times:

The common ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans spread across Europe and Asia over half a million years ago. Gradually the eastern and western populations parted ways, genetically speaking.
In the east, they became Denisovans. In the west, they became Neanderthals. The 430,000-year-old fossils at Sima de los Huesos — Neanderthals with Denisovanlike genes — capture the early stage of that split.
At some point before 270,000 years ago, African humans closely related to us moved into Europe and interbred with Neanderthals. Their DNA entered the Neanderthal gene pool. (In Neanderthal DNA, Signs of a Mysterious Human Migration; see also the finds of Homo sapiens in Morocco which helped set the stage for these earlier dates.)

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10 Jul 2017 at 17:06
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Don't know, neither do the experts, but I think it's expected that Denisovans closely resembled AMH-more than Neanderthals.

At present, scientists are working on what they suspect is another species, which would possibly fit in somewhere around the Neanderthal/Denisovan/AMH.

I'm not game enough to predict what it may be, but, at present, scientists are working on small bone fragments, so small in fact that any findings could well be challenged.
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