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TUPI origins of Brazil

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    Posted: 25 Jun 2009 at 05:24

I found somewhere else some very interesting information about the origins of Brazil. The first colones and the largest European majorities of the original settlers of Brazil are actually of Tupi-Portuguese stock. This is theirs history.

Tupi people

 

 

 

The Tupi people (also known as Tupinambá) were one of the main ethnic groups of Brazilian indigenous people. Scholars believe they first settled in the Amazon rainforest, but 2,900 years ago they started to spread southward and gradually occupied the Atlantic coast.[1]

 

 

History

 

The Tupi people inhabited almost all of Brazil's coast when the Portuguese first arrived there. In 1500, their population was estimated at 1 million people, nearly the same population of Portugal at that time. They were divided into dozens of tribes, living in each tribe from 300 to 2,000 people. Examples of tribes are: Tupiniquim, Tupinambá, Potiguara, Tabajara, Caetés, Temiminó, Tamoios. The Tupi knew agriculture therefore exceed a Palaeolithic condition. They grew cassava, corn, sweet potatoes, beans, peanuts, tobacco, squash, cotton and many others. The Tupi often fought against the other tribes of the region or even among themselves, because there was not a unified Tupi identity. Despite the fact that they were a single ethnic group that spoke a common tongue, the Tupi were divided into several tribes which were constantly engaged in war with one another. In these wars the Tupi normally tried to capture their enemies to later kill them in cannibalistic rituals, instead of just killing them in battle.[2]

 

 

 

Cannibalism was part of their ritual after a war. The warriors captured from other Tupi tribes were eaten as they believed they were absorbing their strength. The practice of cannibalism among the Tupi was known in Europe by Hans Staden, a German soldier and mariner who was captured by the Tupi. Staden was taken three times to be eaten in a cannibal ritual, but the Indians refused to eat him, because he cried and asked for leniency. According to Darcy Ribeiro, the Tupinambá "did not eat cowards". Back to Europe, Staden published a book about his experience among the Brazilian Indians, which was published in 1557.[2]

 

 

 

 

European colonization

 

From the sixteenth century onward the Tupi, like other natives from the region, were assimilated, enslaved or simply exterminated by Portuguese settlers and Bandeirantes (colonial Brazil scouts), nearly leading to their complete annihilation, with the exception of a few isolated communities. The remnants of these tribes are today confined to Indian reservations or acculturated to some degree into the dominant society.[2].

 

 

 

Race-mixing and Cunhadismo

 

Many indigenous peoples were important for the formation of the Brazilian people, but the main group was the Tupi. When the Portuguese explorers arrived in Brazil in the 16th century, the Tupi were the first Amerindian group to have contact with them. Soon, a process of miscegenation between Portuguese settlers and indigenous women started. The Portuguese colonists rarely brought women, making the Indian women the "breeding matrix of the Brazilian people"[2]. When the first Europeans arrived, the phenomenon of "cunhadismo" (from Portuguese cunhado, "brother in law") began to spread by the colony. Cunhadismo was an old Indian tradition of incorporating strangers to their community. The Indians offered the Portuguese an Indian girl as wife. Once he agreed, he formed a bond of kinship with all the Indians of the tribe. Polygyny, a common practice among South American Indians, was quickly adopted by European settlers. This way, a single European man could have dozens of Indian wives (temericós).[2].

 

 

Cunhadismo was used as recruitment of labour. The Portuguese could have many temericós and thus a huge number of Indian relatives who were induced to work for him, especially to cut pau-brasil and take it to the ships on the coast. In the process, a large mixed-race (mameluco) population was formed, which in fact occupied Brazil. Without the practice of cunhadismo, the Portuguese colonization was impractical. The number of Portuguese men in Brazil was very small and even smaller for Portuguese women. This proliferation of mixed-race people in the belly of Indian women is what provided the occupation of the territory and the consolidation of the Portuguese presence in the region.[2].

 

 

Influence in Brazil

 

Although the Tupi population was exterminated because of slavery or because of European diseases to which they had no resistance, a large population of maternal Tupi ancestry occupied much of the Brazilian territory, taking the ancient traditions to several points of the country. Darcy Ribeiro wrote that the features of the first Brazilians were much more Tupi than Portuguese, and even the language that they spoke was a Tupi-based language, named Nheengatu or Língua geral, a lingua franca in Brazil until the 18th century[2]. The region of São Paulo was the biggest in the proliferation of Mamelucos, who in the 17th century under the name of Bandeirantes, spread throughout the Brazilian territory, from the Amazon rainforest to the extreme South. They were responsible for the major expansion of the Iberian culture in the interior of Brazil. They acculturated the Indian tribes who lived isolated, and took the language of the colonizer, which was not Portuguese yet, but Nheengatu itself, to the most inhospitable corners of the colony. Interestingly, the Nheengatu is still spoken in certain regions of the Amazon, although the Tupi-speaking Indians did not live there. The Nheengatu language, as in other regions of the country, was introduced there by Bandeirantes from São Paulo in the 17th century. The way of life of the Old Paulistas could almost be confused with the Indians. In family only Nheengatu was spoken. Agriculture, hunting, fishing and gathering of fruits were also based on Indian traditions. What differentiated the Tupi from the Old Paulistas were the use of clothes, salt, metal tools, weapons and other European items.[2].

 

 

 

 

 

When these areas of large Tupi influence started to be integrated in the market economy, the Brazilian society, gradually, started to lose its Tupi characteristics . The Portuguese language became dominant and Língua Geral virtually disappeared. The rustic Indian techniques of productions were replaced by European ones, in order to elevate the capacity of exportation[2]. From Tupi, Brazilian Portuguese absorbed many words. Some examples of Portuguese words that came from Tupi are: mingau, mirim, soco, cutucar, tiquinho, perereca, tatu. The names of several local fauna (such as arara ("macaw"), jacaré ("South American alligator"), tucano ("toucan") and flora (mandioca ("manioc"), abacaxi ("pineapple"), are also derived from the Tupi language. A number of places and cities in modern Brazil are named in Tupi (Itaquaquecetuba, Pindamonhangaba, Caruaru, Ipanema). Anthroponyms include Ubirajara, Ubiratã, Moema, Jussara, Jurema, Janaína[3]. Tupi surnames do exist, but they do not imply any real Tupi ancestry; rather they were adopted as a manner to display Brazilian nationalism[4].

The tupinambá tribe is fictitiously portrayed in Nelson Pereira dos Santos' satirical 1971 film, How Tasty Was My Little Frenchman (Como Era Gostoso o Meu Francês).

The Guarani are a different native group which inhabits southern Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and northern Argentina and speaks the distinct Guaraní language, but it is usually thought to be the same language group as Tupi.

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More information on Brazil origins, this time on Guaranis.
 
Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America, distinguished from the related Tupi by their use of the Guaraní language. The traditional range of the Guaraní people is in what is now Paraguay, between the Uruguay River and lower Paraguay River, the Corrientes and Entre Rios Provinces of Argentina, southern Brazil, and parts of Uruguay and Bolivia.[1] Although their demographic dominance of the region has been reduced by European colonisation and the commensurate rise of the mestizo, there are contemporary Guaraní populations in these areas. The Guaraní language is still widely spoken across traditional Guaraní homelands, most notably in Paraguay where it is one of the two official languages



Name

The history and meaning of the name Guaraní are subjects of dispute. Prior to the encounter with Europeans, the Guaraní referred to themselves simply as Abá, meaning "men" or "people."[3] The term Guaraní was originally applied by early Jesuit missionaries to refer to natives who had accepted conversion and were thus "civilized", while using the term Cayua or Caingua (ka'aguygua) to refer to those who had refused conversion. Cayua is roughly translated as "the ones from the forest". While the term Cayua is sometimes still used to refer to settlements of indigenous peoples that have not well integrated into society, the modern usage of the name Guaraní is generally extended to include all people of native origin regardless of societal status.


History

The history of the Guaraní people prior to contact with European explorers is not well documented. A written language did not exist forcing early history to be based entirely on oral tradition, and as the Guaraní people were a somewhat nomadic, decentralized society, there is little in the way of reliable history.[4]
Early villages often consisted of communal houses, of ten to fifteen families. Communities were united only by common interest and language, and tended to form tribal groups by dialect. It is estimated that they numbered at some 400,000 people when they were first encountered by Europeans. They were sedentary and agricultural, subsisting largely on manioc, maize, wild game, and honey.
Equally little is known about early Guaraní society and beliefs. They practiced a form of animistic pantheism, much of which has survived in the form of numerous folklore and myths. Guaraní mythology is still widespread in rural Paraguay. According to the Jesuit missionary Martin Dobrizhoffer, they practiced cannibalism, perhaps as a funerary ritual, but later disposed of the dead in large jars placed inverted on the ground.





European contact

In 1511, the Spanish navigator Juan de Solis was the first European to enter Río de la Plata, the estuary of the Paraná or Paraguay River, followed by Sebastian Cabot in 1526 . In 1537, Gonzalo de Mendoza ascended through Paraguay to about the present Brazilian frontier, and on returning made acquaintance with the Guaraní and founded Asunción (later capital of Paraguay).
The first governor of the Spanish territory of Guayrá initiated a policy of intermarriage of Europeans with the indigenous women, which gave rise to the Paraguayan nation. He also initiated the enslavement of the natives who had no protector until the arrival of Jesuit missionaries.
The first two Jesuits, Father Barcena and Father Angulo, came to what is now the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil, in 1585, by land from what was to be called Bolivia some 240 years later. Others soon followed, and a Jesuit college was established at Asunción. In 1608, as a result of Jesuit protest against enslavement of the indigenous population, King Philip III of Spain gave authority to the Jesuits to convert and colonize the tribes of Guayrá. It should be noted that in the early period the name Paraguay was loosely used to designate all the basin of the river, including parts of what are now Uruguay, Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil.
As usual in Spanish colonies, exploring expeditions were accompanied by Franciscan friars. Early in the history of Asunción, Father Luis de Bolanos translated the catechism into the Guarani language to preach to Guaraní who resided in the area around the settlement. In 1588-89 St. Francis Solanus crossed the Chaco wilderness from Peru and stopped at Asunción, but gave no attention to the Guaraní. His recall left the field clear to the Jesuits, who assumed the double duty of "civilizing" and Christianizing the Native Americans and defending them against the cruelty of slave dealers and employers, as well as practically all of the European population, including lay, clerical, and official. "The larger portion of the population regarded it as a right, a privilege in virtue of conquest, that they should enslave the Indians" (Page, 470). The Jesuit provincial Torres arrived in 1607, and "immediately placed himself at the head of those who had opposed the cruelties at all times exercised over the natives" (ibid).

Slavery



The centre and depot of the slave trade was the town of São Paulo. While originally a rendezvous place for the Portuguese, Dutch, and Spanish pirates, it later became a refuge for criminals of all nations, who mixed with Native American and African women, and actively participated in the capturing and selling of Guaranis as slaves. (this information seems wrong. São Paulo was never a rendezvous place for pirates, since it wasn't in the coast, neither a refuge for criminals of all nations. It was founded as a Jesuit mission and later became the center of bandeirante activity)





To oppose these armed and organized robbers, the tribes had only their bows, since the Spanish government prohibited the use of firearms by even "civilized Indians". Many Native Americans were slain or enslaved by the slave-hunters at large in Brazil during those years.


Jesuit missions



With the royal protection, the first Guayrá mission, Loreto, was established on the Paranapané by Father Cataldino and Father Marcerata in 1610. As the mission provided the only real possible protection against enslavement, the Guaraní flocked there in such numbers that twelve more missions were created in rapid succession, containing in all 40,000 Guaranis. Stimulated by this success, Father Gonzalez and two companions journeyed to Uruguay and established two or three small missions, in 1627, with good promise for the future, until the local tribes murdered the priests, massacred the neophytes, and burned the missions.

Slave raiders saw the Guaraní missions as "merely an opportunity of capturing more Indians than usual at a haul" and as "nest of hawks, looked at their neophytes as pigeons, ready fattening for their use" (Graham 57). In 1629, an army of Paulistas surrounded the San Antonio mission, set fire to the church and other buildings, killed those who resisted or were too young or too old to travel, and carried the rest into slavery. San Miguel and Jesu Maria quickly met the same fate. Eventually, reinforcements, gathered by Father Cataldino, drove off the enemy. Many other missions were not as fortunate. Within two years, all but two of the establishments were destroyed, as 60,000 Christian and "civilized" converts carried off for sale to São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The attacks were usually on Sunday, when the whole mission population was gathered for Mass. Usually, the priests were spared, but several were killed while ministering to the wounded or pleading with the murderers.



The survival of Guayrá missions were in jeopardy. The few thousand Indians were left from nearly 100,000 just before the Paulista invasion. Father Antonio Ruiz de Montoya purchased 10,000 cattle, and was able to transform the Indians from farmers into stock raisers. Soon, work began to prosper, and under Fathers Rançoncier and Romero the Uruguay missions were re-established. However, in 1632 the old enemy, the Mamelucos, discovered a new line of attack from the south. In 1638, despite some successful resistance, all twelve of the missions beyond the Uruguay were abandoned and their people consolidated with the community of the Missions Territory. In the last raid Father Afaro was killed.

In the same year Father Montoya, after having successfully opposed the governor's and Bishop of Asunción's attempts to reduce the liberties of the Indians and the mission administration, sailed for Europe. On his trip he was successful in receiving a letters from Pope Urban VIII forbidding the enslavement of the mission Indians under the severest church penalties, and from King Philip IV of Spain, permitting Indians to carry firearms for defense, and to be trained to use them by veteran soldiers who had become Jesuits.



When the next Paulista army, 800 strong, attacked in 1641 they were met by a body of Christian Guaraní armed with guns on the Acaray River. In two battles, the Paulista army suffered a defeat that warded off invasions for ten years. In 1651, the war between Spain and Portugal encouraged another Paulista attack intended to gain territory for Portugal. Before Spanish troops could arrive to help defend the missions, the fathers themselves led a Guaraní army against the enemy. In 1732, at their greatest prosperity, the Guaraní missions were guarded by a well-drilled and well-equipped army of 7,000 Indians. On more than one occasion this mission army, accompanied by their priests, defended the Spanish colony.


Mission layout



The ruins of several of the missions still remain. The missions were laid out in a uniform plan. The buildings were grouped about a central square, the church and store-houses at one end, and the dwellings of the Indians, in long barracks, forming the other three sides. Each family had its own separate apartment, but one veranda and one roof served for perhaps a hundred families. The churches were of stone or fine wood, with lofty towers, elaborate sculptures, richly adorned altars, and the statuary imported from Italy and Spain. The priests' quarters, the commissary, the stables, the armory, the workshop, and the hospital also usually of stone, formed an inner square adjoining the church. The plaza itself was a level grass plot kept cropped by sheep. The Indian houses were sometimes of stone, but more often of adobe or cane, with home-made furniture or religious pictures, often made by the Indian themselves.



Life at the missions





Smaller missions had two priests, whereas larger missions had more. Populations varied from 2,000 to 7,000. In the morning, the rising sun was greeted by a chorus of children's hymns, followed by Mass and breakfast, after which the workers went to their tasks. "The Jesuits marshalled their neophytes to the sound of music, and in procession to the fields, with a saint borne high aloft, the community each day at sunrise took its way. Along the way at stated intervals were shrines of saints where they prayed, and sang hymns between shrines. As the procession advanced it became gradually smaller as groups of Indians dropped off to work the various fields and finally the priest and acolyte with the musicians returned alone" (Graham, 178-9). At noon each group assembled for the Angelus, after which came dinner and a siesta; work was then resumed until evening. After supper came the rosary and sleep. On rainy days they worked indoors. Frequent festivals with sham battles, fireworks, concerts, and dances, prevented monotony.
Aside from the farm each man would typically had his own garden. In addition to differnt kinds of agriculture, stock raising, and the cultivation of the maté. Jesuits introduced many trades and arts that were a part of Europe. It was not uncommon for missions to have many different types of trades within their communities. Cotton weavers, tanneries, carpenters, tailors, hat makers, coopers, boat builders, silversmiths, musicians, painters, and turners could sometimes be found in these communities. They also had printers to work their printing presses to print the many books and manuscripts produced, such those made by the monks in European monasteries (Graham).
The goods that were produced at the missions, including that from the increase of the herds, were sold in Buenos Aires and other markets, under supervision of the fathers. The proceeds earned were divided between a common fund, the workers, and helpless dependents.
A high degree of emphasis was put on education as early training was regarded as the key to future success. (Page, 503) Much of the instruction was conducted in Guaraní; which was still the prevailing language of the country, but Spanish was also taught in every school. In this way, the Jesuits hoped to transformed the Indians into communities of peaceful, industrious, highly-skilled Christian workers among whom idleness, crime, and poverty were alike unknown.
In 1732, the Guaraní missions numbered thirty, with 141,252 Christian Indians.[citation needed] Two years later a smallpox epidemic killed approximately 30,000 of these. In 1765, a second outbreak killed approximately 12,000 more, and then spread westward through the tribes of the Chaco.

Uruguay missions saved

In 1750, a treaty between Spain and Portugal (the Treaty of Madrid) transferred to Portugal the territory of the seven missions on the Uruguay, and the Indians were ordered to be removed. However, those Indians knew the Portuguese as slave-hunters, and refused to leave and the Spanish and Portuguese armies. Seven years of guerrilla warfare killed thousands of Indians and nearly ruined the missions (see Guarani War). The Jesuits secured a royal decree restoring the disputed mission territory to Spanish jurisdiction. Two missions in 1747, and a third in 1760 were established in the sub-tribe of the Itatines, or Tobatines, in Central Paraguay, far north of the older mission group. In one of these, San Joaquin (1747), Martin Dobrizhoffer ministered for eight years.

Jesuits expelled

In 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from Spanish dominions, by royal edict. Fearing the event, viceroy Antonio María Bucareli y Ursúa entrusted the execution of the mandate in 1768 to two officers with a force of 500 troops. Despite the mission army of 14,000, the Jesuits submitted without resistance.

Decline of the missions

The missions were turned over to priests of other orders, chiefly Franciscans, but under a code of regulations drawn up by the viceroy and modelled largely upon the very Jesuit system which he had condemned. Under divided authority, uncertain government support, and without the love or confidence of the Indians, the new teachers soon lost courage and the missions rapidly declined. The Indians went back by thousands to their original forests or become vagabond outcasts in towns. By the official census of 1801, less than 45,000 Indians remained, cattle, sheep, and horses had disappeared, the fields and orchards were overgrown and cut down and the splendid churches were in ruins. The long period of revolutionary struggle that followed completed the destruction. In 1814 the mission Indians numbered but 8,000 and in 1848 the few who remained were declared citizens.
However, the Guaraní people and culture persists. Nearly all the forest tribes on the borders of Paraguay are Guaraní. Many are descendants of mission exiles. In Paraguay Guaraní lineage predominates in the population and the Guaraní language is spoken in most provinces to this day.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Carcharodon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27 Jun 2009 at 16:20
Originally posted by pinguin pinguin wrote:

São Paulo was never a rendezvous place for pirates, since it wasn't in the coast, neither a refuge for criminals of all nations. It was founded as a Jesuit mission and later became the center of bandeirante activity
 
Judged by todays standards the Bandeirantes were awful criminals and mass murderers. It´s really a shame that Brazil still today celebrates those thugs as heroes.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27 Jun 2009 at 16:48

Bandeirantes were mixed bloods, though. That was the point raised there.

Sao Paulo was founded by Tibirica, if you don't know. Let me get the info here, that comes from another forum, from a used that signed as "Bracari"
 
The Founders of Brazilian Genealogy were Portuguese with Tupi Indian women.
Tibiriçá, a Tupi Chief, was declared the Founder of São Paulo, he is buried in the Cripta of the City's Cathedral and he was entitled Lord Protector of São Paulo. One of his daughters was the common wife of João Ramalho and it's the starting point of the big Genealogia Paulistana, the origins of the Bandeirante families that conquered and colonized South and Central Brazil. In Bahia the couple was the Portuguese man Caramurú and his Indian "wife". In Pernambuco the Albuquerque family also had an Indian "wife" and they created a new elite in the Northeast. Brazilian traditional genealogy starts with the Tupi "blood" as a continuation of their presence even when phenotypes do not show them. Brazilians liked to write big Genealogias relating the ruling class to the early 16th Century Founders of the country as a symbol of status in an old aristocratic society of slaveholders .
 
Some more info







Tibiriçá, João Ramalho - Colonization of São Paulo - 19th Century Painting



João Ramalho and his son, Tibiriçá's grandson.



Tibiriçá's Mausoleum under the Sé Cathedral - São Paulo

A Cripta do Fundador



Tibiriçá's little tribe nowadays





"Genealogia Paulistana" on line
http://www.geocities.com/lscamargo/gp/genpaulistana.htm
9 Volumes
150.000 listed individuals in Brazil from the early 1500's to the early 1900's
One of the World's biggest genealogical database from the Tupi and Portuguese Founders of Brazil
You can find this extraordinary thread here:
 
 
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Carcharodon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27 Jun 2009 at 20:54
Originally posted by pinguin pinguin wrote:

 Bandeirantes were mixed bloods, though. That was the point raised there. 
 
Not all of them, some where "pure" portuguese stock.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28 Jun 2009 at 02:03
You must understand all the societies of the Americas, and even in part in the U.S. as well, were founded by European males and theirs indigenous women.
 
That's something you shouldn't forget if you want to understand the region one day.
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